Environmental Impact and Energy Management of Sports Stadia

Worldwide focus on energy has sharpened in the last 15 years. Political, socio-economic, financial and environmental factors cause concern at various global, regional and domestic levels of authority and in the consciousness of the public. The built environment within the UK is a high energy user, made up of different sectors that each has their own methods of addressing and managing their energy footprint.

As part of my dissertation research project at London South Bank University, I investigated the current measures being taken by UK sporting associations and individual clubs to reduce energy use. Through analysis of published and gathered data was found to account for 0.49% of the financial outgoings of a typical English football club.

With such a small percentage of financial resources going towards HVAC energy consumption, it is understandable that energy costs cannot be at the forefront of UK clubs’ financial management.

However, the finances, brand awareness and infrastructure within high-profile sports franchises still presents an opportunity to drive direct energy consumption and environmental impact down. Additionally, larger clubs that take the lead in this field will inspire smaller clubs, the viewing public and other industries to bring about change through the implementation of managerial procedures and investment in sustainable technology.

There are several football clubs that issue annual Corporate and Social Responsibility (CSR) reports which contain some elements of energy and waste reduction and describe steps being made to reduce their environmental impact. At present, CSR is wide spread within all major US sports leagues, but this has not always been the case.  10 to 15 years ago it was a rarity, with some academics in the field of sports management calling for advances in this area.  North American universities in particular are well placed to analyse the benefits of sustainable attitudes in sports stadia management due to 8 of the 10 largest stadiums in the world being university owned, with most having professional sports franchises as tenants.  As a result most universities have sports management departments that lead the field in the research and enforcement of such attitudes and recently several academic papers and industry journals have praised the uptake of CSR across North American sport.

Although CSR reporting is gaining traction, currently the organizations that do report on these issues tend to only be the richest clubs or those with a stable financial position in regards to long term ownership.  Maintaining financial stability and club investments tend to concentrate only on short term goals like immediate survival or promotion within their association’s league structure.

In order for sustainability to have any real effect within these organizations, stakeholders need to set long term reduction targets and efficiency goals. CSR reporting is an excellent place to start because it puts in place methods for measuring, reporting and managing energy consumption.  But like the US major leagues this needs to be a top down approach with sports associations like the English Football Association (The FA), Rugby Football Union (RFU) and England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) taking the lead on this and making themselves fully accountable via CSR as well as their members, only then will we see the wide range of benefits that such attitudes bring with them.

 

Photo from http://www.sportacular.in/csr-.html 

Nuclear Fusion Reactors

The rewards of creating a functional nuclear fusion reactor will be enormous.  Such a device will generate safe, emission-free energy using fuel derived from water and lithium. This opportunity has intrigued and stumped scientists worldwide for nearly a century, and for good reason.

The conditions needed to sustain the fusion reaction are extreme and complex.  The reaction requires the containment of plasma at hundreds of millions of degrees Celsius.  During the reaction, isotopes of hydrogen are “fused,” releasing large quantities of heat energy.  Building on many decades of work, scientists and engineers around the world are developing experimental fusion reactors, which briefly replicate the same reactions powering the stars in the night sky.

The method of containing the plasma differentiates the many approaches to fusion.  Inertial confinement facilities such as the National Ignition Facility attempt to fuse small spheres of hydrogen fuel using high-powered lasers.  Magnetic confinement reactors use conductive coils to create a “bottle” of magnetic fields that retain the burning plasma.  Popular designs of confinement reactors include signature donut-shaped tokamaks (NSTX, JET and ITER) and twisting, irregular stellarators (HSX and LHD).  ITER, the international thermonuclear experiment reactor, aims to be the first tokamak to produce more energy than what is required to run the machine. Construction on ITER began in 2013.

Magnetic confinement reactors are engineering marvels.  A reactor usually consists of a metal vacuum-sealed chamber surrounded by racks upon racks of conductive coils, measurement equipment, pipes, cables, power supplies, and cooling system components.  In order for an experiment to operate safely, countless systems need to provide heating, cooling, vast quantities of electrical power, vacuum pressure maintenance, and diagnostics.  Operational safety concerns include high voltages, heat, and radiation (the fusion reaction can irradiate components on the inside of the chamber).

Despite numerous developing safety requirements, fusion reactors still offer huge safety advantages over nuclear fission reactors.  They do not generate radioactive waste, apart from the recyclable components inside the devices themselves.  Fusion reactions also have no chance of burning uncontrollably, due to the tiny amount of hydrogen burned at a time.  A power failure or fuel interruption would simply stop the reaction.  Fusion fuel also cannot be weaponized.

On large scales, fusion energy is an ideal power source.  Unlike fossil fuel power plants, a confinement fusion reactor does not generate carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases.  Additionally, the fuel needed to sustain the reaction can be derived from seawater, which is much more abundant than fossil fuels.

Fusion also distinguishes itself from renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind by offering consistency. An industrial scale fusion reactor will reliably and predictably add thousands of MW to an electricity grid, helping to meet demands not satisfied by the intermittent contributions of solar and wind.

So, when can the world expect to add emission-free, safe, renewable fusion energy to its mix?  Due to the significant short-term risks of climate change, the answer to this question matters.  The brief answer is that scientists and engineers are still decades away from practically producing electricity from fusion.  Full scale experiments on ITER are planned for the late 2020’s, and an industrial scale plant called DEMO is expected to follow.

When ITER finally begins to fuse hydrogen, it will make history as one of the largest, most expensive, and most significant scientific undertakings of all time. Fusion, when it becomes practical, may propel mankind into a new abundant energy era, marking the end of the current “oil age.”  But in the meantime, scientists, engineers, politicians, and concerned citizens need to make do with existing energy technologies in the fight against the next few decades of global warming.

Photo source: http://www.tokamak.info/